Espadeiro (PT)

Variety: red | Category III | Portugal

General Information


Origin: This variety has its origins in the North-Wast of Portugal. It was described by Fonseca (1790: 35) and Lobo (1790: 73). Vila Maior (1875) mentioned it together with three homonymous varieties. Ferreira Lapa (1874) knew of this variety as a homonym of the Trincadeira variety in the Azeitão region.

Chief areas of distribution: Minho.

Official synonym(s) (national and OIV): None.

Historic and regional synonyms: Padeiro, Tinta dos Pobres.

Homonym(s): In Azeitão, Trincadeira. There is a white variety and previously (Meneses, 1896) there were 14 varieties with this name.

Area under cultivation: 1,600 ha.

New plantings: Less than 0.25%.

Trend: Insignificant.

Varietal variability: Medium.

Availability of propagating material: RNSV polyclonal material available.

VVMD5 VVMD7 VVMD27 VrZag62 VrZag79 VVS2
Allele1 Allele2 Allele1 Allele2 Allele1 Allele2 Allele1 Allele2 Allele1 Allele2 Allele1 Allele2
222 226 243 259 183 189 196 204 251 251 135 153

DOC quality wine: Vinho Verde, in the sub-regions of Amarante, Ave, Basto, Cávado, Lima, and Sousa.

Regional wine: Minho.

Young shoot (form of tip): Open with crimson red tip, sparse erect hairs.

Young leaf: Green with yellow tinges. Sparse erect hairs on lower side of blade.

Young shoot: Green with red stripes, green nodes.

Mature leaf: Of medium size, pentagonal, three lobed, dark green blade, irregular, slight blistering. Glabrous on lower side of blade. Convex teeth of medium size. Slightly open V-shaped petiolar sinus.

Bunch: Large, conical, medium density, medium peduncle.

Berry: Medium size, round, blue-black, skin of medium thickness, easy to detach. Flesh firm.

Woody shoot: Yellowy brown.

Time of bud burst: Late, 10 days after the Castelão.

Flowering: Normal, 6 days after the Castelão.

Berry (colour change): Late, 10 days after the Castelão.

Berry (harvest ripe): Late, one week after the Castelão.

Vigour of shoot growth: Very high.

Pruning weight:: High.

Shoot attitude (habit): Erect, plagiotropic.

Length of internodes: Medium. Its prominent internodes in winter make this variety easy to recognise.

Shoot length: Medium to sometimes very long.

Tendency to form lateral shoots: Low.

Rate of multiple bud bursts: Medium.

Bud fertility index: Medium, approximately 1.4 flowers per shoot.

Yield: Medium to high, depending on bunch density (8,000 – 16,000 kg/ha). RNSV statistical value: 8.04 kg/vine (average of 40 clones in Lousada over 4 years).

Yield consistency: Inconsistent.

Crop uniformity: Uniform.

Winkler Index: 1338 (Arcos de Valdevez).

Sensitivity to abiotic factors: Not known.

Susceptibility to fungal diseases: Medium susceptibility to most common fungal diseases.

Susceptibility to Pests: Not known.

Bunch size: Very large.

Seeds per berry: 2.2.

Vineyard conduction system: Traditionally, vines grew on trees. Nowadays, the cordon training system is used.

Soil requirement: Humid, weathered granite soils.

Climatic requirements: Tolerates wind and rain.

Vine density: Variable, mostly 1,200 – 2,000 vines/ha.

Rootstock: No known incompatibility.

Incidence of coulure/millerandage: Not susceptible.

Spoilage of mature berries: Minimal.

Risk of bird damage: Very low.

Machine harvest suitability: Suitable, although usage not widespread.

Hand harvest suitability: Suitable.

Wine type: Quality light red or rosé wine.

Potential alcohol content: 9% - 12% vol.

Natural acidity of must: High 6-9 g/l

Colour intensity of wine: Low.

Tannins: Monomeric 55.9 mg/l; oligomeric 262 mg/l; polymeric 4667 mg/l.

Risk of oxidation of wine: Low.

Aromatic profile: Not analysed.

Ageing Potential: High.

Blending recommendation: Vinhão (because of its colour intensity).

Wine Descriptors: the wines produced from must low in alcohol are often bright red to ruby red, with an acidic taste and aroma typical of the variety (EVAC 2002).

Wine quality: High, and typical of the region.

Variety Characteristics: Vinho Verde type wine of high colour intensity, because of the bica aberta must fermentation method used.

Other varieties from the same category: